Referencias de investigaciones sobre beneficios de la práctica de taichí

Además de ser un arte de autodefensa, las investigaciones actuales indican que el T'ai Chi Ch'uan es un ejercicio cardiovascular moderado. La práctica de T'ai-Chi Ch'uan puede mejorar el equilibrio, reducir las caídas y aumentar la fuerza de las piernas. También reduce las hormonas del estrés, mejora la función respiratoria e inmunológica y promueve el bienestar emocional. Un resumen de la investigación se puede encontrar en (Sandlund y Norlander, 2000). Y más específicamente en las referencias que siguen:


Equilibrio

Beneficios en condiciones médicas específicas

Sistema cardiovascular

Ancianos y poblaciones envejecidas

Respuesta inmune (Blood T-Cells) 

Estados de ánimo

Reducción de caídas y accidentes 

Sistema respiratorio

  • Increased efficiency in use of ventilatory volume (Brown, et al., 1989)
  • Enhanced ventilary capacity without cardiovascular stress (Brown et al, 1995)
  • Efficient use of ventilatory volume, efficient breathing patterns (Schneider & Leung, 1991)
  • Medical Tribune News Service article discussing research led by Dr. Jin-Shin Lai of the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation at the National Taiwan University Hospital in Taipei.

Hormonas del estres (Niveles de cotisol en saliva)

Ejercicio con pesas

Otras referencias sobre beneficios

Otros casos generales

 


 

Referencias

  • Achiron A, et al. Electrical sensation during Tai-Chi practice as the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1997 Dec; 99(4): 280-281. CIT. IDS: PMID: 9491306 UI: 98152006
  • Blinde, E.M. & McClung, L. R. Enhancing the physical and social self through recreational activity: Accounts of individuals with physical disabilities. Physical Activity Quarterly. 1997 Oct Vol 14(4): 327-344. Abstract
  • Bottomley, J. (2000). The Use of T'ai Chi as a Movement Modality in Orthopaedics. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Clinics of North America, September, pp. 361-373 Full Article (ocr errors)
  • Brown DD, Mucci WG, Hetzler RK, Knowlton RG. Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses during formalized T'ai Chi Chuan exercise. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport. 1989;60:246-250.Abstract
  • Brown DR, Wang Y, Ward A, et al. Chronic effects of exercise and exercise plus cognitive strategies. Med Sci Sports Exer. 1995;27:765-775. CIT. IDS: PMID: 7674883 UI: 95405217 Abstract
  • Carbary, LJ. How to help prevent falls. J Pract Nurs. 1991 Jun; 41 (2): 13-4
  • Channer KS, Barrow D, Barrow R, Osborne M, Ives G. Changes in hemodynamic parameters following T'ai Chi Chuan and aerobic exercise in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction. Postgraduate Medical journal 1996;72:349-351. CIT. IDS: PMID: 8758013 UI: 96318925 Abstract
  • Chen, W.; Sun, W. Tai Chi Chuan, an alternative form of exercise for health promotion and disease prevention for older adults in the community. International Quarterly of Community Health Education. 1997 Vol 16(4) 333-339
  • Chewning, B., Yu, T., & Johnson, J (2000a) T'ai Chi: Ancient Exercise for Contemporary Life. ACSM Health and Fitness Journal. March/April, (4), Number 2. Full Article
  • Chewning, B., Yu, T., & Johnson, J (2000b) T'ai Chi: Effects on Health. ACSM Health and Fitness Journal. May/June, (4), Number 3. Full Article
  • Gibb H, et al. A therapeutic programme for people with dementia. Int J Nurs Pract. 1997 Sep; 3(3): 191-199. CIT. IDS: PMID: 9391353 UI: 98052837
  • Gong LS et al. Changes in heart rate and electrocardiogram during taijiquan exercise. Chinese Medical journal ; 1981:94(9) 589-592.
  • Hackneya, M. E. & Earhart, G. M. (2008) Tai Chi improves balance and mobility in people with Parkinson disease. Posture and Gait. Published online 01 April 2008.(AbstractFull Article)
  • Henderson NK, et al. The roles of exercise and fall risk reduction in the prevention of osteoporosis. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1998 Jun; 27(2): 369-387. Review. CIT. IDS: PMID: 9669143 UI: 98333750
  • Irwin, M. R., Olmstead, R., Oxman, M. N. (2007) Augmenting Immune Responses to Varicella Zoster Virus in Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Tai Chi. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 55 (4), 511–517. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01109.x (summary)
  • Jin P. Changes in heart rate, noradrenaline, cortisol and mood during T'ai Chi. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1989;33 (2): 197-206. CIT. IDS: 
  • PMID: 2724196 UI: 89258574 Abstract
  • Jin P. Efficacy of t'ai-chi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress. J Psychosom Res. 1992 May; 36 (4): 361-370. CIT. IDS: PMID: 1593511 UI: 92277480 Abstract
  • Judge JO, Lindsey C, Underwood M, Winsemius D. Balance improvements in older women: effects of exercise training. Phys Ther. 1993 Apr; 73 (4):254-262. CIT. IDS: PMID: 8456144 UI: 93205751
  • Kessenich, CR. Tai Chi as a method of fall prevention in the elderly. Orthop Nurs. 1998 Jul-Aug; 17 (4): 27-9
  • Kirsteins AE, Dietz F, Hwang SM. Evaluating the safety and potential use of a weight-bearing exercise, tai-chi chuan, for rheumatoid arthritis patients. American Journal of Phys Med and Rehab ; 1991 Jun; 70 (3):136-141. CIT. IDS: PMID: 2039615 UI: 91248435
  • Kirsteins A Tai-Chi Chuan. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 Apr; 79(4): 471. No abstract available. CIT. IDS: PMID: 9552121 UI: 98211848
  • Kutner NG Barnhart H Wolf SL McNeely E Xu T. Self-report benefits of tai chi practice by older adults. J of Gerentology . 1997 52 (5): 242-46. CIT. IDS: PMID: 9310093 UI: 97455881
  • La Forge R Mind-body fitness: encouraging prospects for primary and secondary prevention. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997 Apr; 11(3): 53-65. Review. CIT. IDS: PMID: 9095454 UI: 97249568
  • Lai JS, Wong N4K, Lan C, Chong CK, Lien IN. Cardiorespiratory responses of t'ai chi chuan practitioners and sedentary subjects during cycle ergometry. J Formosan Med Assoc. 1993 Oct;92(10):894-899. CIT. IDS: 
  • PMID: 7908571 UI: 94198625 Abstract
  • Lai JS, Lan C, Wong MK, Teng SH. Two-year trends in cardiorespiratory function among older tai-chi chuan practitioners and sedentary subjects. J Am Geriatric Soc. 1995; 43:1222-1227. CIT. IDS: PMID: 7594155 UI: 96046716 Abstract
  • Lam P New horizons ... developing tai chi for health care. Aust Fam Physician. 1998 Jan; 27(1-2): 100-101. No abstract available. CIT. IDS: PMID: 9503718 UI: 98164467
  • Lan C, et al. Cardiorespiratory function, flexibility, and body composition among geriatric Tai Chi Chuan practitioners. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996 Jun; 77(6): 612-616. CIT. IDS: PMID: 8831482 UI: 96428379
  • Lan C Lai JS Chen SY Wong MK. Twelve-month tai chi training in the elderly: its effects on health and fitness. Med & Sci in Sports & Exer. 1998 30 (3): 345-51 CIT. IDS: PMID: 9526879 UI: 98186075
  • Lutz S The benefits of Tai Chi. Beginnings. 1996 Apr; 16(4): 3. No abstract available. CIT. IDS: PMID: 8715985 UI: 96360526
  • Myers, E. R. & Weiner, G. I. Injury Prevention: Keeping Old Bones Whole. Harvard Health Letter.21(11); September 1996. Abstract
  • Ng RK. Cardiopulmonary exercise: a recently discovered secret of t'ai chi. Hawaii Medical journal. 1992 Aug; 51 (8): 216-217. CIT. IDS: PMID: 1399544 UI: 93014874
  • Province MA, Hadley EC, Hornbrook MC, et al. The effects of exercise on falls in elderly patients. A preplanned meta-analysis of the FICSIT Trials. Frailty and injuries: cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. JAMA. 1995;273:13411347. CIT. IDS: PMID: 7715058 UI: 95230871 Abstract
  • Ross MC Preswalla JL. The therapeutic effects of tai chi for the elderly. J of Gerontol Nurs. 1998 24(2):45-7.
  • Sandlund, E. S. and Norlander, T. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Relaxation and Exercise on Stress Responses and Well-Being: An Overview of Research. International Journal of Stress Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2000 Full Article
  • Schneider D, Leung R. Metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to the performance of wing chun and t'ai-chi chuan exercise. Int J of Sports Med. 1991;12(3):319-23. Abstract
  • Smith, CE. Preventing falls in the elderly. Am Fam Physician. 1998 Apr 1; 57 (7): 1497-8.
  • Sun XS, Xu Y, Xia Yj. Determination of E-rosette-forming lymphocytes in aged subjects with Taichiquan exercise. Int J of Sports Med 1989;10:217-219.
  • Sun, W.Y. Impact of a Tai Chi Chuan Program on the Health of Among Older Adults. Student Monograph. 12(1):73-80, July 1994. Abstract
  • Sun, W. Y.; Dosch, M.; Gilmore, G.; Pemberton, W.; Scarseth, T. Effects of a Tai Chi Chuan program on Hmong American older adults. Educational Gerontology. 1996 Mar Vol 22(2) 161-167 (Same as previous citation, published in a different periodical, see Sun, 1994)
  • Tse S, Bailey DM. T'ai Chi and postural control in the well elderly. Am J Occ Ther. 1992;46:295-300.
  • Wolf SL, Kutner NG, Green RC, McNeely E. The Atlanta FICSIT study: two exercise interventions to reduce frailty in elders. J Am Geriatric Soc. 1993 Mar; 41 (3): 329-332.
  • Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Kutner NG, McNeely E, Coogler C, Xu T. Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of T'ai Chi and computerized balance training. J Am Geriatric Soc. 1996; 44:599-600. CIT. IDS: PMID: 8617895 UI: 96208898 Abstract
  • Wolf SL, et al. Exploring the basis for Tai Chi Chuan as a therapeutic exercise approach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997 Aug; 78(8): 886-892. CIT. IDS: PMID: 9344312 UI: 98002997
  • Wolf SL, et al. The effect of Tai Chi Quan and computerized balance training on postural stability in older subjects. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies on Intervention Techniques. Phys Ther. 1997 Apr; 77(4): 371-381. CIT. IDS: PMID: 9105340 UI: 97259220
  • Wolfson L, Whipple R, Judge J, Amerman P, Derby C, King M. Training balance and strength in the elderly to improve function. J Am Geriatric Soc.1993 Mar; 41 (3): 341343. CIT. IDS: PMID: 8440862 UI: 93179676
  • Wolfson L, Whipple R, Derby C, Judge J, King M, Amerman P, Schmidt L Smyers D. Balance and strength training in older adults: intervention gains and T'ai Chi maintenance. J Am Geriatric Soc. 1996;44:498-506. CIT. IDS: PMID: 8617896 UI: 96208899 Abstract
  • Young, D. R., Missing Title, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1999; 47:277-284 Summary Article
  • Zhou DH. Preventive geriatrics: an overview from traditional Chinese medicine. American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1982;10:32-39.
  • Zhou D, Shephard Rj, Plyley Mj, Davis GM. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses during Tai Chi Chuan exercise. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences. 1984 Mar; 9 (1): 7-10. CITATION IDS: PMID: 6705129 UI: 84156904 Abstract

 

Algunos Abstracts de referencias de investigación

 

Tai Chi Improves Lung Function 
In Older People

By Jacqueline Stenson

c.1995 Medical Tribune News Service

Practicing a Chinese martial art may help some elderly people stave off age-related breathing problems, a new report shows.

In a study of 84 people whose average age was 64, those who practiced tai chi regularly over two years had less of a decline in lung function than those who were more sedentary.

Tests given before and after the study showed that the sedentary men and women experienced more than twice the decline in the amount of oxygen they could take into their lungs, compared to those who practiced tai chi.

The tai chi group also had greater spinal flexibility and less body fat than their sedentary counterparts, according to the study, published in the November issue of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

As people age, they experience a natural decline in their lung capacity. While many experts believe endurance training can slow this decline, many exercises are considered too taxing for older people, the researchers said, because these people often suffer other types of disability that preclude strenuous exercise.

Tai chi, also known as shadow boxing, is an ancient discipline that uses graceful movements, deep breathing and mental concentration to achieve mind-body harmony, according to the researchers, led by Dr. Jin-Shin Lai of the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation at the National Taiwan University Hospital in Taipei.

The deep-breathing component of tai chi may explain why those who practiced the activity maintained better lung function than those who did not, according to David Anderson, a registered nurse and certified tai chi instructor in Indianapolis.

"Tai chi emphasizes deep abdominal breathing, which uses more of your lungs than usual chest breathing," Anderson said. Tai chi also increases a person's heart rate, and therefore helps improve overall heart and lung health, he said.

Because tai chi is a low-impact activity, it is a good exercise for older people who may have joint degeneration and other physical problems, the Indiana expert said.

"It's not outwardly strenuous like aerobics is," Anderson said. "And it's cheap - you don't need $100 shoes. You only need 10 square feet of empty floor space."

The Arthritis Foundation recommends tai chi for people with arthritis, many of whom cannot tolerate the jarring effects of other types of exercise. The range-of-motion exercises involved in tai chi benefit arthritis sufferers by helping them keep their joints flexible and reduce stiffness, according to the arthritis group.

In the study, people in the tai chi group practiced the discipline about five times a week. These people had been doing tai chi an average of seven years prior to the study.

Each exercise session consisted of 20 minutes of warm-up (including stretching exercises, calisthenics and balance training), 24 minutes of tai chi training and 10 minutes of cool-down.

Doctors who would like to read a more in-depth, clinical version of this story should check the Dec. 21 issue of Medical Tribune Family Physician Edition. 
  
Medscape is produced by Medscape, Inc.

All material on this server Copyright © 1994, 1995 by the publishers involved.


Brown DD, Mucci WG, Hetzler RK, Knowlton RG.

Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses during formalized T'ai Chi Chuan exercise. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport. 1989;60:246-250.

Authors 
Brown DD.  Mucci WG.  Hetzler RK.  Knowlton RG.

Institution 
Department of Physical Education, Illinois State University, Normal 61761. 
Title 
Cardiovascular and ventilatory responses during formalized T'ai Chi-Chuan exercise. 
Source 
Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport.  60(3):246-50, 1989 Sep.

Abstract

T'ai Chi chuan (TCC) is a widely practiced Chinese martial art said to physically develop balance and coordination as well as enhance emotional and mental health.  TCC consists of a series of postures combined into a sequential movement providing a smooth, continuous, low-intensity activity.  The purpose of this study was to examine the ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to the Long Form of Yang's style TCC.  In addition, the subjects' TCC responses were compared to their ventilatory and cardiovascular responses during cycle ergometry at an oxygen consumption (VO2) equivalent to the mean TCC V02.  Six experienced (M = 8.3 yrs) male TCC practitioners served as subjects with data collected during the Cloud H and movement of the TCC exercise.  Significantly (p less than .05) lower responses for ventilatory frequency (Vf) (11.3 and 15.7 breaths.min-1), ventilatory equivalent (VE/VO2) (23.47 and 27.41), and the ratio of dead space ventilation to tidal volume (VD/VT) (20 and 270c) were found in TCC in comparison to cycle ergometry.  The percentage of minute ventilation used for alveolar ventilation was significantly higher during TCC (p less than .03) than cycle ergometry, with mean values of 81.lt and 73.lt respectively.  Cardiac output, stroke volume, and heart rate were not significantly different between TCC exercise and cycle ergometry at the same oxygen consumption.  We concluded -that, during TCC, expert practitioners show significantly different ventilatory-responses leading to more efficient use of the ventilatory'volume than would be expected from comparable levels of exertion on a cycle ergometer. 
 


Brown DR, Wang Y, Ward A, et al.

Chronic effects of exercise and exercise plus cognitive strategies.

Med Sci Sports Exer. 1995;27:765-775. CIT. IDS: PMID: 7674883 UI: 95405217

Medline® Medlars UID 95405217 
Med Sci Sports Exerc Vol. 27 no. 5 pp. 765-75 
Type: CLINICAL TRIAL JOURNAL ARTICLE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Language: Eng 
Country: UNITED STATES 
Journal Code: MG8 
Indexing Priority: 2 
Journal Subset: M

MeSH Headings: Adaptation, Psychological/* Adult Affect Cognition 
Exercise/*psychology Female Human Male Mental Health Middle Age Personality 
Inventory Self Concept Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

DATE: 1995 May

Abstract

Psychological changes associated with 16-wk moderate and low intensity exercise training programs, two of which possessed a cognitive component, were evaluated. Subjects were healthy, sedentary adults, 69 women (mean age = 54.8 +/- 8.3 yr) and 66 men (mean age = 50.6 +/- 8.0 yr). Participants were randomly assigned to a control group (C), moderate intensity walking group (MW), low intensity walking group (LW), low intensity walking plus relaxation response group (LWR), or mindful exercise (ME) group-a Tai Chi type program. Women in the ME group experienced reductions in mood disturbance (tension, P < 0.01; depression, P < 0.05; anger, P < 0.008; confusion, P < 0.02; and total mood disturbance, P < 0.006) and an improvement in general mood (P < 0.04). Women in the MW group noted greater satisfaction with physical attributes (body cathexis, P < 0.03), and men in MW reported increased positive affect (P < 0.006). No other differences were observed between groups on measures of mood, self-esteem, personality, or life satisfaction. Equivocal support is provided for the hypothesis that exercise plus cognitive strategy training programs are more effective than exercise programs lacking a structured cognitive component in promoting psychological benefits.

             Brown DR Wang Y Ward A Ebbeling CB Fortlage L Puleo E Benson H Rippe JM

       Exercise Physiology and Nutrition Laboratory, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 
                                                         Worcester 01655, USA. 
                                                                 1995 960823

Medlars UID 95405217


Channer KS, Barrow D, Barrow R, Osborne M, Ives G.

Changes in hemodynamic parameters following T'ai Chi Chuan and aerobic exercise in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction.

Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1996;72:349-351.

Reported changes in blood pressure during an exercise program for cardiac rehabilitation following myocardial infarction. Three weeks after they were discharged from the hospital, a sample of 126 patients (90 males and 36 females; average age 56 years, ranging from 39 to 80 years) were randomly divided into three groups: T'ai Chi , aerobic exercise , and a non-exercise support group Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded before and after each session. At 11 weeks post-discharge, diastolic blood pressure had decreased only in the T'ai Chi group ( p<.01). Significant reductions in systolic blood pressure occurred in both exercise groups (both p<.05) compared to a control support group.


Chen, W.; Sun, W.

Tai Chi Chuan, an alternative form of exercise for health promotion and disease prevention for older adults in the community.

International Quarterly of Community Health Education. 1997 Vol 16(4) 333-339

Examined the health effects of Tai Chi Chuan on 36 older adults (aged 50-74 years) in a community setting. 23 Ss in the experimental group received 32 1-hr sessions of Tai Chi Chuan instruction in 16 weeks. Health effects were determined by measuring heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, anxiety, and flexibility. Results of data analysis indicated that Ss who received training in Tai Chi Chuan had a greater improvement in flexibility and muscle relaxation than did Ss who did not receive training. In addition to retaining improved flexibility and muscle relaxation, Ss in the experimental group also showed significant improvements in blood pressure, anxiety scores at the follow-up session.

These results appear to support the beneficial effects of practicing Tai Chi Chuan for health promotion and disease prevention for older adults in the community. ((c) 1998 PSYINFO, all rights reserved)


Jin P.

Changes in heart rate, noradrenaline, cortisol and mood during T'ai Chi.

Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1989;33:197-206.

Authors 
Jin P. 
Institution 
Department of Psychology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia. 
Title 
Changes in heart rate, noradrenaline, cortisol and mood during Tai Chi. 
Source 
Journal of Psychosomatic Research.   33(2):197-206, 1989. 

Abstract

Changes in psychological and physiological functioning following participation in Tai Chi were assessed for 33 beginners and 33 practitioners.  The variables in the three-way factorial design were experience (beginners vs practitioners) , time (morning vs afternoon vs evening), and phase (before Tai Chi vs during Tai Chi vs after Tai Chi) . Phase was a repeated measures variable.  Relative to measures taken beforehand, practice of Tai Chi raised heart rate, increased noradrenaline-excretion in urine, and decreased salivary cortisol concentration.  Relative to baseline levels, subjects reported less tensioh, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion and state-anxiety, they felt more vigorous, and in -general they had less total mood disturbance.  The data suggest that Tai Chi results in gains that are comparable to those found with moderate exercise.  There is need for research concerned with whether participation in Tai Chi has effects over and above those associated with physical exercise.


Jin P.

Efficacy of t'ai-chi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress.

J Psychosom Res. 1992;36:361-370.

Title

Efficacy of Tai Chi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress.

Abstract

Examined Tai Chi, a moving meditation, for its efficacy in poststressor recovery in 48 adult male and 48 adult female Tai Chi practitioners assigned to 4 treatment groups: Tai Chi, brisk walking, meditation, and neutral reading. The stress-reduction effect of Tai Chi characterized moderate physical exercise. Although Tai Chi appeared to be superior to neutral reading in the reduction of state anxiety and the enhancement of vigor, this effect could be partially accounted for by the Ss' high expectations about gains from Tai Chi. All 4 treatments, in general, were equally effective in reducing mood disturbance caused by mental/emotional stressors. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)

AUTHOR Jin, Putai

AFFILIATION La Trobe U, Bundoora, Vict, Australia

SOURCE Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1992 May Vol 36(4)

361-370


Lai JS, Wong N4K, Lan C, Chong CK, Lien IN.

Cardiorespiratory responses of t'ai chi Ch'uan practitioners and sedentary subjects during cycle ergometry. 

J Formosan Med Assoc. 1993;92:894-899.

Cardiorespiratory responses of Tai Chi Chuan practitioners and sedentary subjects during cycle ergometry. Medline® Medlars UID 94198625J Formos Med Assoc Vol. 92 no. 10 pp. 894-9 Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE Language: Eng Country: HONG KONG Journal Code: BLQ Indexing Priority: 3MeSH Headings: Comparative Study Exercise/* Exercise Test/* Female HeartRate/* Human Male Middle Age Oxygen Consumption Respiration/* Support,Non-U.S. Gov'tDATE: 1993 Oct

Abstract

Tai Chi Chuan (TCC; shadow boxing) is a traditional Chinese conditioning exercise. To evaluate its beneficial effect on cardiorespiratory function, 21 male and 20 female TCC practitioners, ranging in age from 50 to 64 years, voluntarily participated in this study. The control group comprised 23 male and 26 female sedentary subjects. Breath-by-breath measurement of the cardiorespiratory function was obtained during the incremental exercise of leg cycling. At the maximal exercise level, the oxygen uptake (VO2), O2pulse and work rate of the TCC group were significantly higher than the respective values of the control group (p < 0.01). At the ventilatory threshold, the TCC group also showed a higher VO2, O2 pulse and work rate (p < 0.05). The results imply that TCC training may be beneficial to the cardiorespiratory function of older individuals. To estimate the exercise intensity of TCC, heart rate (HR) was monitored in 15 men and 15 women while they performed the classical Yang TCC. During the steady-state performance of TCC, the mean HR was 130 +/- 14 bpm for men and 127 +/- 13bpm for women. The mean HR during TCC exceeded 70% of their HRmax. Our data substantiate that TCC is aerobic exercise of moderate intensity, and it maybe prescribed as a suitable conditioning exercise for the elderly.Lai JS Wong MK Lan C Chong CK Lien IN Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, R.O.C.1993 960823Medlars UID 94198625

Avicenna Copyright Notice All rights reserved.


Lai JS, Lan C, Wong MK, Teng SH.

Two-year trends in cardiorespiratory function among older tai-chi chuan practitioners and sedentary subjects.

J Am Geriatric Soc. 1995; 43:1222-1227. CIT. IDS: PMID: 7594155 UI: 96046716

Two-year trends in cardiorespiratory function among 
older Tai Chi Chuan practitioners and sedentary subjects.

Medline® Medlars UID 96046716 
J Am Geriatr Soc Vol. 43 no. 11 pp. 1222-7 
Type: CLINICAL TRIAL CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL JOURNAL ARTICLE

Language: Eng 
Country: UNITED STATES 
Journal Code: H6V 
Indexing Priority: 1 
Journal Subset: M

MeSH Headings: Aged Cohort Studies Comparative Study Exercise Test Female 
Geriatric Assessment/* Heart Rate Human Male Martial Arts/*physiology 
Middle Age Oxygen Consumption Prospective Studies Respiration/*physiology 
Sex Factors Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

DATE: 1995 Nov

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the training effects of Chinese shadow boxing, Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), on the maintenance of cardiorespiratory function in older individuals. DESIGN: Prospective study of a cohort of TCC practitioners and a group of sedentary controls examined 2 years after initial 
examination. SETTING: Research project at a hospital-based exercise physiology laboratory. 
PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-four community-dwelling older adults (mean age: 64 +/- 9 years) with no significant cardiovascular, pulmonary, and musculoskeletal disease completed this study. The TCC group, 23 male and 22 female subjects, had been practicing TCC regularly for 6.7 +/- 3.3 years. The control group included 21 male and 18 female sedentary subjects with age and body size matched to the TCC group. INTERVENTION: During the period of the study, the TCC practitioners practiced TCC 5.0 +/- 1.1 times per week. Each session included 20 minutes of warm up, 24 minutes of TCC training, and 10 minutes of cool down. The baseline cardiorespiratory function was recorded in the initial exercise test. The same measurements were repeated 2 years later to determine the rate of decline of cardiorespiratory function. Furthermore, heart rates (HR) were monitored in 18 men and 16 women during the performance of TCC to determine the exercise intensity of TCC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The study measured 2-year trends of cardiorespiratory function in both groups. RESULTS: In the TCC group, the males showed a 2.8% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from 31.6 +/- 7.6 mL x kg-1 x min-1 to 30.7 +/- 7.1 mL x kg-1 x min-1; the females showed a 2.9% decrease in VO2 max from 20.7 +/- 2.3 mL x kg-1 x min-1 to 20.1 +/- 2.5 mL x kg-1 x min-1. In contrast, the male control group showed a 6.6% decrease in VO2max from 24.4 +/- 4.4 mL x kg-1 x min-1 to 22.8 +/- 4.4 mL x kg-1 x min-1; the females showed a 7.4% decrease in VO2max from 16.2 +/- 2.3 mL x kg-1 x min-1 to 15.0 +/- 2.7 mL x kg-1 x min-1. At the ventilatory threshold ( VeT), the sedentary group also showed a significant decrease in VO2. During the steady-state performance of TCC, subjects' mean HR was approximately the HR at the VeT (53-57% of HRmax reserve). CONCLUSION: The data substantiate that practicing Tai Chi Chuan regularly may delay the decline of cardiorespiratory function in older individuals. In addition, TCC may be prescribed as a suitable aerobic exercise for older adults.

                                                  Lai JS Lan C Wong MK Teng SH

   Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 
                                                              Republic of China. 
                                                                 1995 960822

Medlars UID 96046716


 

Blinde, E.M. & McClung, L. R.

Enhancing the physical and social self through recreational activity: Accounts of individuals with physical disabilities.

Physical Activity Quarterly. 1997 Oct Vol 14(4): 327-344.

TITLE Enhancing the physical and social self through recreational activity: Accounts of individuals with physical disabilities.

ABSTRACT

Explored the impact of participation in recreational activities on perceptions of the physical and social selves of 11 women (aged 19-54 yrs) and 12 men (aged 20-36 yrs) with physical disabilities (e.g., cerebral palsy, head injuries, paraplegia). Ss participated in individualized recreational programs, including horseback riding, swimming, fitness, weightlifting, racquetball, bowling, tennis, fishing, walking, and tai chi.

Tape-recorded interviews were conducted with these Ss following participation. Content analyses of the interview responses indicated that participation impacted 4 aspects of the physical self: experiencing the body in new ways, enhancing perceptions of physical attributes, redefining physical capabilities, and increasing perceived confidence to pursue new physical activities. Modifications in Ss' perceptions of the social self were reflected in 2 themes: expanding social interactions and experiences, and initiating social activities in other contexts. The gains discussed by Ss suggest that they developed an enhanced sense of control in both their physical and social lives. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)

 

AUTHOR Blinde, Elaine M.; McClung, Lisa R.

 

AFFILIATION Southern Illinois U, Dept of Physical Education,

 

Carbondale, IL, USA

 

SOURCE Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 1997 Oct Vol 14(4) 327-344

 

 


Province MA, Hadley EC, Hornbrook MC, et al.

The effects of exercise on falls in elderly patients. A preplanned meta-analysis of the FICSIT Trials.

Frailty and injuries: cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques. JAMA.1995;273:13411347. CIT. IDS: PMID: 7715058 UI: 95230871

The Effects of Exercise on Falls in Elderly- Patients 
A Preplanned Meta-analysis of the FICSIT Trials

Michael A. Province, PhD: Evan C. Hadley.  MD: Mark C. Hornbrook, PhD; Lewis A. Lipsitz, MD: J. Philip Miller-Cynthia D. Mulrow.  MD; Marcia G. Ory, PhD, MPH: Richard W. Sattin.  MD; Mary E. Tinetti, MD; 
Steven L. Wolf, PhD; for the FICSIT Group

Objective.- To determine if short-term exercise reduces falls and fall-related injuries in the elderly.

Design.- A preplanned meta-analysis of the seven Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT)--An dependent, randomized, controlled clinical trials that assessed intervention efficacy in reducing falls and frailty in elderly patents.  All included an exercise component for 1 0 to 36 weeks.  Fall and injury follow-up was obtained for up to 2 to 4 years.

Setting.- Two nursing home and five community-dwelling (three health maintenance organizations) sites.  Six were group and center based; one was conducted at home.

Participants.- Numbers of participants ranged from 100 to 1323 per study.  Subjects were mostly ambulatory and cognitively intact with minimum ages of 60 to 75 years, although some studies required additional deficits, such as functionally dependent in two or more activities of daily living, balance deficits or lower extremity weakness, or high risk of failing.

Interventions.- Exercise components varied across studies in character, duration, frequency, and intensity.  Training was Wormed in one area or more of endurance, flexibility, balance platform, Tai Chi (dynamic balance), and resistance.  Several treatment arms included additional none exercise components, such as behavioral components, medication changes, education, functional activity, or nutritional supplements.

Main Outcome Measure- Time to each fall (fall-related injury) by self-report and/or medical records.

Results.- Using the Andersen-Gill extension of the Cox model that allows multiple fall outcomes per patient the adjusted fall incidence ratio for treatment arms including general exercise was 0.90 (95% confidence limits [CL], 0.81, 0.99) and for those including balance was 0.83 (95% CL, 0.70,0.98). No exercise component was significant for injurious falls, but power was low to detect this outcome.

Conclusions.- Treatments including exercise for elderly adults reduce the risk of falls.

(JAMA 1995:273:1341-1347)


Schneider D, Leung R.

Metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to the performance of wing chun and t'ai-chi chuan exercise.

Int J of Sports Med. 1991;12(3):319-23.

Authors: 
Schneider D. Leung R. 
Institution: 
Department of Health, Sport, and Leisure Studies, .-Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the training effects of Chinese shadow boxing, Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), on the maintenance of cardiorespiratory function in older individuals.

DESIGN: Prospective study of a cohort of TCC practitioners and a group of sedentary controls examined 2 years after initial examination.

SETTING: Research project at a hospital-based exercise physiology laboratory.

PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-four community-dwelling older adults (mean age: 64 +/- 9 years) with no significant cardiovascular, pulmonary, and musculoskeletal disease completed this study.  The TCC group, 23 male and 22 female subjects, had been practicing TCC regularly for 6.7 +/- 3.3 years.  The control group included 21 male and 18 female sedentary subjects with age and body size matched to the TCC group.

INTERVENTION: During the period of the study, the TCC practitioners practiced TCC 5.0 +/- 1.1 times per week.  Each session included 20 minutes of warm up, 24 minutes of TCC training, and 10 minutes of cool down.  The baseline cardiorespiratory function was recorded in the initial exercise test.  The same measurements were repeated 2 years later to determine the rate of decline of cardiorespiratory function.  Furthermore, heart rates (HR) were monitored in 18 men and 16 women during the performance of TCC to determine the exercise intensity of TCC.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The study measured 2-year trends of cardiorespiratory function in both groups.

RESULTS: In the TCC group, the males showed a 2.8-06 decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from 31.6 +/- 7.6 mL x kg-1 x min-1 to 30.7 +/- 7.1 mL x kg-1 x min-1; the females showed a 2.9k decrease in V02 max from 20.7 +/- 2.3 mL x kg-1 x min-1 to 20.1 +/- 2.5 mL x kg-1 x min-1.  In contrast, the male control group showed a 6.6k decrease in V02max from 24.4 +/- 4.4 mL x kg-1 x min-1 to 22.8 +/- 4.4 mL x kg-1 x min-1; the females showed a 7.4% decrease in V02max from .16.2 +/- 2.3 mL x kg-1 x min-1 to 15.0 +/- 2.7 mL x kg-1 x min-1.  At the ventilatory threshold (VeT), the sedentary group also showed a significant decrease in V02.  During the steady-state performance of TCC, subjects' mean HR was approximately the HR at the VeT (53-57t of HRmax reserve) .

CONCLUSION: The data substantiate that practicing Tai Chi Chuan regularly may delay the decline of cardiorespiratory function in older individuals.  In addition, TCC may be prescribed as a suitable aerobic exercise for older adults.


Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Kutner NG, McNeely E, Coogler C, Xu T.

Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of T'ai Chi and computerized balance training.

J Am Geriatric Soc. 1996;44:599-600. CIT. IDS: PMID: 8617895 UI: 96208898

http://www.wwilkins.com/AGS/0002-86145-9...

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

Vol. 44 No. 5 
May 1996 
Abstracts

CLINICAL INVESTIGATION

Reducing Frailty and Falls in Older Persons: An Investigation of Tai Chi and Computerized Balance Training

Steven L. Wolf, PhD, FAPTA, Huiman X. Barnhart, PhD, Nancy G. Kutner, PhD, Elizabeth McNeely, PhD, Carol Coogler, ScD, PT, Tingsen Xu, PhD, and the Atlanta FICSIT Group

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of two exercise approaches, Tai Chi (TC) and computerized balance training (BT), on specified primary outcomes (biomedical, functional, and psychosocial indicators of frailty) and secondary outcomes (occurrence of falls).

DESIGN: The Atlanta FICSIT (Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention 
Techniques), a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial with three arms (TC, BT, and education [ED]). Intervention length was 15 weeks, with primary outcomes measured before and after intervention and at 4-month follow-up. Falls were monitored continuously throughout the study.

SETTING: Persons aged 70 and older living in the community.

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 200 participants, 162 women and 38 men; mean age was 76.2.

MEASUREMENTS: Biomedical (strength, flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, body 
composition), functional (IADL), and psychosocial well-being (CES-D scale, fear of falling questionnaire, self-perception of present and future health, mastery index, perceived quality of sleep, and intrusiveness) variables.

RESULTS: Grip strength declined in all groups, and lower extremity range of motion showed limited but statistically significant changes. Lowered blood pressure before and after a 12-minute walk was seen following TC participation. Fear of falling responses and intrusiveness responses were reduced after the TC intervention compared with the ED group (P = .046 and P = .058, respectively). After adjusting for fall risk factors, TC was found to reduce the risk of multiple falls by 47.5%.

CONCLUSIONS: A moderate TC intervention can impact favorably on defined biomedical and psychosocial indices of frailty. This intervention can also have favorable effects upon the occurrence of falls. Tai Chi warrants further study as an exercise treatment to improve the health of older people.


Wolfson L, Whipple R, Derby C, Judge J, King M, Amerman P, Schmidt L Smyers D.

Balance and strength training in older adults: intervention gains and T'ai Chi maintenance.

J Am Geriatric Soc. 1996;44:498-506. CIT. IDS: PMID: 8617896 UI: 96208899

J Am Geriatr Soc 44:489&shy;497; 1996

Balance and Strength Training in Older Adults: Intervention Gains and Tai Chi Maintenance

Leslie Wolfson, MD, Robert Whipple, MA, PT, Carol Derby, PhD, James Judge, MD, Mary King, MD, Paula Amerman, MS, Julia Schmidt, and Donna Smyers, MS, PT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect on balance and strength of 3 months of intensive balance and/or weight training followed by 6 months of low intensity Tai Chi training for maintenance of gains.

DESIGN: Randomized control intervention. Four groups in 2 x 2 design: Control, Balance, Strength, Balance + Strength, using blinded testers.

SETTING: Exercise and balance laboratory at University of Connecticut Health Center.

PARTICIPANTS: Subjects were 110 healthy community dwellers (mean age 80) who were free of dementia, neurological disease, and serious cardiovascular or musculoskeletal conditions.

INTERVENTIONS: Short-term training (3 months) occurred 3 times/week (45 minutes Balance and Strength, 90 minutes Balance + Strength). Balance training included equilibrium control exercises on firm and foam surfaces and center-of-pressure biofeedback. Strengthening consisted of lower extremity weight-lifting. All subjects then received long-term group Tai Chi instruction (6 months, 1 hour, 1 time/week).

MEASUREMENTS: Losses of balance during Sensory Organization Testing (LOB), single stance time (SST), voluntary limits of stability (FBOS), summed isokinetic torque of eight lower extremity movements (ISOK), and usual gait velocity (GVU).

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Balance training meaningfully improved all balance measures by restoring performance to a level analogous to an individual 3 to 10 years younger: LOB = -2.0 &plusmn; 0.3 (adjusted paired differences, P < .005 ANOVA); SST = 7.0 &plusmn; 1.2 sec; and FBOS = 9.0 &plusmn; 2.0% of foot length (P < .05). Strengthening increased ISOK by 1.1 &plusmn; 0.1 Nm kg-1 (P < .005) There was no interaction between balance and strength training. Significant gains persisted after 6 months of Tai Chi, although there was some decrement.

J Am Geriatr Soc 44:498&shy;506; 1996

http://www.wwilkins.com/AGS/0002-86145-9...

© 1996 Williams & Wilkins


Sun, W.Y.

Impact of a Tai Chi Chuan Program on the Health of Among Older Adults.

Student Monograph. 12(1):73-80, July 1994.

9. Impact of a Tai Chi Chuan Program on the Health of Among Older Adults.

Subfile: Health Promotion and Education 
Format (FM): Journal article. 
Author (AU): Sun, W.Y. 
Source (SO): Student Monograph. 12(1):73-80, July 1994.

Abstract (AB)

Researchers investigated the effects of a Tai Chi Chuan fitness program on older adults who emigrated to the United States from refugee camps in Thailand. Researchers divided 40 Hmong adults over age 59 between a 20-member experimental group (8 males and 12 females) and a 20-member control group (6 males and 14 females). The experimental group participated in a Tai Chi Chuan program once a week for 12 consecutive weeks, including a pretest week and a posttest week. The program consisted of 10 2-hour sessions, which covered information about human physiology and common related diseases in older adults, emotional and mental health, and stress management. The sessions reviewed the Tai Chi Chuan movements from the previous week, taught new movements, and assigned exercises to practice for the next meeting. The control group continued its routine physical activities. Researchers compared pretest and posttest scores on (1) Tai Chi Chuan knowledge and attitudes, (2) behavior, (3) general well-being, (4) resting heart rate, (5) resting blood pressure, (6) stress level, and (7) joint flexibility. No significant differences existed between the groups at pretest. At posttest, experimental group subjects had (1) improved their knowledge and attitudes regarding Tai Chi Chuan, (2) exhibited more exercise behavior, (3) decreased their resting blood pressure, (4) improved their stress management skills, (5) felt more relaxed, and (6) improved their joint flexibility. 2 tables, 15 references.

Major Descriptors (MJ): ASIAN AMERICANS. ATTITUDE DETERMINATION. ATTITUDES.  BEHAVIOR CHANGE. BLOOD PRESSURE. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS. ELDERLY PERSONS. ETHNIC GROUPS. EXERCISE. KNOWLEDGE MEASUREMENTS. LECTURES. MENTAL HEALTH. MINORITY GROUPS. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS. REFUGEES. RELAXATION METHODS. RESEARCH. STRESS MANAGEMENT. THAILAND. 
Language(s) (LG): English.


Myers, E. R. & Weiner, G. I.

Injury Prevention: Keeping Old Bones Whole.

Harvard Health Letter. 21(11); September 1996.

12. Injury Prevention: Keeping Old Bones Whole.

Subfile: Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease 
Format (FM): Newsletter Article (35). 
Author (AU): Myers, E. R.; Weiner, G. I. 
Source (SO): Harvard Health Letter. 21(11); September 1996. 

Abstract (AB):

This newsletter article for health professionals and physicians discusses injury prevention techniques for the elderly, particularly those with osteoporosis, that are designed to reduce the occurrence of falls and the resulting bone fractures. 
 

Three basic approaches are examined: 
averting the fall, decreasing the severity when one occurs, and keeping bones strong. It reveals that those who engaged in Tai Chi were able to reduce their risk of falling by 47.5 percent as well as decreasing their fear of falling. Use of strategically located padding, such as hip pads, can reduce a fall's severity. Finally, increasing or maintaining bone density through diet, including hormone therapy, and using weight-bearing exercise can help reduce bone fractures. 1 figure. 
Major Descriptors (MJ): Aged. Bones. Exercise. Fractures. Prevention. 
Minor Descriptors (MN): Osteoporosis. 
Availability (AV): Available from Harvard Health Letter, P.O. Box 420300, Palm Coast, FL 32142-0300. (800) 829-9045.


Zhou D, Shephard Rj, Plyley Mj, Davis GM.

Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses during Tai Chi Chuan exercise.

Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences. 1984 Mar; 9 (1): 7-10. CITATION IDS: PMID: 6705129 UI: 84156904

TITLE: Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses during Tai Chi Chuan exercise.

AUTHOR: 
Zhuo D; Shephard RJ; Plyley MJ; Davis GM

SOURCE: Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1984 Mar; 9(1): 7-10.

CIT. IDS: PMID: 6705129 UI: 84156904

ABSTRACT: 

Tai Chi Chuan is a form of traditional Chinese exercise which has been widely practised in China for preventive and therapeutic purposes. The present study was designed to determine the physiological demands of this exercise modality. Eleven healthy males, aged 28.4 years, were studied for oxygen cost and related metabolic variables, heart rate and blood pressure during the performance of the Long-Form Tai Chi Chuan of Yang's style. Data was collected by an automated respiratory gas analyzer (Jeger Ergooxyscreen) and ECG telemetry during a 17-25 minute performance session (X = 22 minutes). The average energy cost for the Long-Form Tai Chi Chuan was 4.1 Mets, corresponding to a mean VO2 value of 1.03 l X min-1 or 14.5 ml X kg-1 X min-1. The mean peak heart rate during the exercises was 134 beats per minute. These values suggest that the Long-Form Tai Chi Chuan may be classed as moderate exercise, and its intensity does not exceed 50% of the individual's maximum oxygen intake.

MAIN MESH HEADINGS:

*Energy Metabolism
*Exertion
Heart/*physiology
*Oxygen Consumption 
ADDITIONAL MESH HEADINGS: 
Adult
Blood Pressure
China
Heart Rate
Human
Male
Respiratory Function Tests 
PUBLICATION TYPES: 
JOURNAL ARTICLE 
LANGUAGE: 
Eng

 


Hackneya, M. E. & Earhart, G. M. (2008)

Tai Chi improves balance and mobility in people with Parkinson disease.

Posture and Gait. Published online 01 April 2008.

Abstract

This pilot study examines the effects of Tai Chi on balance, gait and mobility in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Thirty-three people with PD were randomly assigned to either a Tai Chi group or a control group. The Tai Chi group participated in 20 1-h long training sessions completed within 10 to 13 weeks; whereas, the control group had two testing sessions between 10 and 13 weeks apart without interposed training. The Tai Chi group improved more than the control group on the Berg Balance Scale, UPDRS, Timed Up and Go, tandem stance test, six-minute walk, and backward walking. Neither group improved in forward walking or the one leg stance test. All Tai Chi participants reported satisfaction with the program and improvements in well-being. Tai Chi appears to be an appropriate, safe and effective form of exercise for some individuals with mild to moderately severe PD.

Keywords: Parkinson disease, Balance, Tai Chi.

Artículos

  • Tai Chi and Increased Immune Functioning. Prevention Magazine V. 42, May 90, p.14-15
  • Tai Chi Harvard Women's Health Watch, 1996, Nov: 4.
  • Tai Chi. Men's Health Magazine. 8 Mar/Apr '93 p. 66-69
  • Balence Exercises: Staying Steady on your feet. Mayo Clinic Health Letter. 1998, Feb: 4-5
  • Aragone, Joan. The Gentle Way to Fitness. Vegetarian Times. 1995, Oct: 103105
  • Davis, Meryl. Cool Moves. Remedy. 1997 May June; 18-21.
  • Downs, Linda. T'ai-Chi. Modern Maturity. 1992 June-July; 61-64.
  • Reuters Health Article Summarizing the research by Dr. Deborah Rohm Young of the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions in Baltimore, Maryland (Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1999; 47:277-284)
  • LePostolle, Mark. Complementary Movement Therapies. Advance for Physical Therapists 1998, August 17: 8-10.
  • National Institute on Aging (NIA) Article: Tai Chi for Older People Reduces Falls, May Help Maintain Strength, Summary of Wolf and Wolfson’s studies. May 2, 1996
  • Ramsay, Susan Morrill. T'ai-Chi as a Balance Tool, Part One. Advance for Physical Therapists. 1998; August: 5, 35.
  • Ramsay, Susan Morrill. T'ai-Chi as a Balance Tool, Part Two. Advance for Physical Therapists. 1998; September 7.
  • Rizzo, Angelo. Before the Fractures. PT Magazine. 1996; May: 128.
  • Sarola, Tony. Taijiquan and Western Physiological Thought, Qi: The Journal of Traditional Eastern Health and Fitness. 1991; Summer: 8-10.
  • Scott, Abigail. Improving Motion and Emotion. Advance for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists. 1998; February: 15,16,23.
  • Shine, Jerry. T'ai-Chi: A Kinder, Gentler Workout. Arthritis Today. 1993 Jan-Feb; 31-33.
  • Shoemaker, Abagail. Improving Balance Through T'ai-Chi Advance for Speech Language Pathologists and Audiologists, 1997; July: 8.
  • Swartzman, Leonard. T'ai-Chi and Parkinson's Disease. Parkinson's Report. 1996 Vol XVII lst quarter; 22-23.
  • Thompson, LaDora. Current Literature Reviews: Did you Even Think that T'aiChi Could be used as a Therapeutic Intervention? Gerinotes. 1996: V3 no 4: 26.
  • Woodworth, Barbara. T'ai-Chi-Possibilities for Occupational Therapy. Occupational Therapy Forum. 1990; Vol V no. 40: 1-4.

 

 

Últimas actualizaciones


Sandlund, E. S. and Norlander, T. The Effects of Tai Chi Chuan Relaxation and Exercise on Stress Responses and Well-Being: An Overview of Research. International Journal of Stress Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2000 
Full Article

Abstract added: Zhou D, Shephard Rj, Plyley Mj, Davis GM. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses during Tai Chi Chuan exercise. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences. 1984 Mar; 9 (1): 7-10. CITATION IDS: PMID: 6705129 UI: 84156904 
Abstract


Abstract added: Channer KS, Barrow D, Barrow R, Osborne M, Ives G. Changes in hemodynamic parameters following T'ai Chi Chuan and aerobic exercise in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction. Postgraduate Medical journal 1996;72:349-351. CIT. IDS: PMID: 8758013 UI: 96318925 
Abstract


Site redesigned without frames.

Addition of index at top of summary of research.

Chewning, B., Yu, T., & Johnson, J (2000a) T'ai Chi: Ancient Exercise for Contemporary Life. ACSM Health and Fitness Journal. March/April, (4), Number 2. Full Article


Addition of index at top of Chewning, B., Yu, T., & Johnson, J. (2000a) Full Article

Full Article added: Chewning, B., Yu, T., & Johnson, J (2000b) T'ai Chi: Effects on Health. ACSM Health and Fitness Journal. May/June, (4), Number 3. Full Article

 


Addition of pdf version of Sandlund, E. S. and Norlander, 2000 to Full Article. (Thanks to Mr. Kim Kanzelberger for providing the PDF version.)


Full Article added: Bottomley, J. (2000). The Use of T'ai Chi as a Movement Modality in Orthopaedics. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Clinics of North America, September, pp. 361-373 Full Article (ocr errors)


Citation and Summary added:

Irwin, M. R., Olmstead, R., Oxman, M. N. (2007) Augmenting Immune Responses to Varicella Zoster Virus in Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Tai Chi. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 55 (4), 511–517. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01109.x (summary)


Citation and Summary added:

Hackneya, M. E. & Earhart, G. M. (2008) Tai Chi improves balance and mobility in people with Parkinson disease. Posture and Gait. Published online 01 April 2008.(Abstract) (Full Article added 4/29/08)

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